KIDNEY STONES

WHAT IT IS: Kidney stones are hard mineral deposits that form inside your kidneys. Different types of stones include calcium oxalate and uric acid, and the diet recommendations are the same, except for oxalates.

YOU ARE AT INCREASED RISK IF YOU
• are a man
• are Caucasian
• have a medical condition such as cystic kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism, chronic urinary tract infections, or gout
• have had bariatric surgery
• have a family history of kidney stones

CULINARY MEDICINE

FOODS TO INCREASE

• Fluids. Men and women drinking the most fluids—an average of over 2.5 liters per day—had significantly fewer stones those drinking just 1.2 liters per day.
• Cranberry juice. Men who drank about seventeen ounces of juice diluted with tap water for two weeks significantly reduced their risk of kidney stones. Women who drank cranberry juice regularly over twelve months decreased their symptomatic urinary tract infections, reducing the risk for stones. Cranberry juice causes a decrease in oxalate and phosphate and an increase in citrate excretion—all of
which lower your risk of developing kidney stones. It also decreases the supersaturation of calcium oxalate—another risk reducing factor.
• Tea and coffee, either caffeinated or decaffeinated. Tea reduces the risk of kidney stones in women by 8 percent, coffee reduces it by 10 percent, and decaf coffee reduces it by 9 percent when an eight-ounce cup is drunk daily. (The mechanism is not known, although it may be the diuretic effect of these beverages.)
• Lemonade. It is rich in citric acid, which may reduce the risk of kidney stone formation in people with recurrent calcium stones. People who ingested four ounces a day for six days decreased their urinary calcium by thirty-nine milligrams, and were less likely to form stones. The citric acid is credited—lemon juice has five times the citric acid as orange juice.
• Red wine. It has been shown to reduce kidney stones by 59 percent in women who drank eight ounces a day.
• Beer. The risk of stones was reduced by 40 percent by drinking a twelve-ounce bottle of beer daily.
• Foods high in magnesium. Such foods, like lentils and nuts, bindoxalate in the intestine, preventing its excretion in the urine. Men eating the most magnesium-rich foods had the fewest kidney stones, when compared with those eating the least magnesium-rich foods.

FOODS TO AVOID
• Apple juice. A prospective study in men showed that apple juice increased the risk of stone events.• Grapefruit juice. People who drink one eight-ounce glass have a 44
percent increased risk compared with those who drinknone.
• High-fat foods.
• Meat, fish, and poultry. Restricting animal protein intake has been shown to reduce the risk of kidney stones in people who get recurrentcalcium oxalate stones.
• Spinach, rhubarb, beets, chocolate, wheat bran, and strawberries. These foods are high in oxalate and promote stone formation in people who form stones.

TOP CHEFMD-APPROVED RECIPES
• Blackberry, Kiwi, and Mango Fruit Salad
• Broccoli, Cheese, and Kalamata Olive Pizza
• Cinnamon Orange Dreamsicle

WATER-COOLER FACT: One in ten Americans will pass a kidney stone in his or her lifetime. Low-calcium diets actually create a higher overall risk for kidney stones.

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